"Accession" is the act whereby a state accepts the offer or the opportunity to become a party to a treaty already negotiated and signed by other states. It has the same legal effect as ratification. Accession usually occurs after the treaty has entered into force. The Secretary-General of the United Nations, in his function as depositary, has also accepted accessions to some conventions before their entry into force. The conditions under which accession may occur and the procedure involved depend on the provisions of the treaty. A treaty might provide for the accession of all other states or for a limited and defined number of states. In the absence of such a provision, accession can only occur where the negotiating states were agreed or subsequently agree on it in the case of the state in question.
After a treaty has been concluded, the written instruments, which provide formal evidence of consent to be bound, and also reservations and declarations, are placed in the custody of a depositary. Unless the treaty provides otherwise, the deposit of the instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession establishes the consent of a state to be bound by the treaty. For treaties with a small number of parties, the depositary will usually be the government of the state on whose territory the treaty was signed. Sometimes various states are chosen as depositaries. Multilateral treaties usually designate an international organization or the Secretary-General of the United Nations as depositaries. The depositary must accept all notifications and documents related to the treaty, examine whether all formal requirements are met, deposit them, register the treaty and notify all relevant acts to the parties concerned.
The growing use of provisional application clauses in treaties is a consequence of the need felt to give effect to treaty obligations prior to a state?s formal ratification of/accession to a treaty. The obligations relating to provisional application are undertaken by a conscious voluntary act of the state consistent with its domestic legal framework.
The provisional application of a treaty that has entered into force may occur when a state undertakes to give effect to the treaty obligations provisionally although its domestic procedures for ratification/accession have not yet been completed. The intention of the state would be to ratify/accede to the treaty once its domestic legal requirements have been met. Provisional application may be terminated at any time. In contrast, a state which has consented to be bound by a treaty through ratification/accession or definitive signature, is governed by the rules on withdrawal specified in the treaty concerned (Arts. 54, 56, Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969).
Provisional application of a treaty that has not entered into force may occur when a state notifies that it would give effect to the legal obligations specified in that treaty provisionally. These legal obligations are undertaken by a conscious voluntary act of the state consistent with its domestic legal framework. Provisional application may be terminated at any time. In contrast, a state which has consented to be bound by a treaty through ratification/ accession or definitive signature, is governed by the rules on withdrawal specified in the treaty concerned (Arts. 54, 56, Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969).
The Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA) is the means by which the EU has been supporting reforms in the enlargement region with financial and technical assistance since 2007. IPA funds build up the capacities of the beneficiaries throughout the accession process, resulting in progressive, positive developments in the region.
The EU pre-accession funds are a sound investment into the future of both the enlargement region and the EU. They support beneficiaries to implement the necessary political and economic reforms, preparing them for the rights and obligations that come with the EU membership. Those reforms should provide their citizens with better opportunities and allow for the development of standards, equal to the ones we enjoy as citizens of the EU. The pre-accession funds also help the EU reach its own objectives including a sustainable economic situation, energy supply, transport, the environment and climate change, and stability.
Programming of EU assistance is based on EU thematic priorities rather than pre-defined country envelopes. This will allow rewarding performance and progress towards key priorities and increased flexibility to respond to the evolving needs of the partners in their path towards accession.
The performance reward was a mechanism set up in the Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance II Regulation 231/2014 (Art 14). It provided a financial incentive for individual IPA II beneficiaries in case of particular progress made towards meeting the membership criteria and/or efficient implementation of pre-accession assistance. The Regulation twice foresaw the use of the performance reward scheme in the period 2014-2020 (current Multi-annual Financial Framework). The reward was first allocated in 2017, benefitting Albania, Kosovo, North Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia with an overall amount of EUR 78 million.
Upon the entry into force of this Protocol, the Secretary General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation shall, on behalf of all the Parties, communicate to the Government of the Republic of North Macedonia an invitation to accede to the North Atlantic Treaty. In accordance with Article 10 of the Treaty, the Republic of North Macedonia shall become a Party on the date when it deposits its instrument of accession with the Government of the United States of America.
Upon the entry into force of this Protocol, the Government of the United States of America shall, on behalf of all the Parties, communicate to the Government of the Kingdom of Greece and the Government of the Republic of Turkey an invitation to accede to the North Atlantic Treaty, as it may be modified by Article 2 of the present Protocol. Thereafter the Kingdom of Greece and the Republic of Turkey shall each become a Party on the date when it deposits its instruments of accession with the Government of the United States of America in accordance with Article 10 of the Treaty.
If the Republic of Turkey becomes a Party to the North Atlantic Treaty, Article 6 of the Treaty shall, as from the date of the deposit by the Government of the Republic of Turkey of its instruments of accession with the Government of the United States of America, be modified to read as follows:
Pre-accession Assistance supports EU candidate countries and potential candidates (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo(*), Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia, and Türkiye) in transforming their societies, legal systems and economies, on the path to EU membership.
Pre-accession assistance funds various types of projects, for example grant schemes, infrastructure investments or technical assistance. The ultimate beneficiaries are people in the EU candidate countries and potential candidates, represented amongst others by
Once the Allies have decided to invite a country to become a member of NATO, they officially invite the country to begin accession talks with the Alliance. This is the first step in the accession process on the way to formal membership. The major steps in the process are:
In the second step of the accession process, each invitee country provides confirmation of its acceptance of the obligations and commitments of membership in the form of a letter of intent from each foreign minister addressed to the NATO Secretary General. Together with this letter they also formally submit their individual reform timetables.
Once all NATO member countries notify the Government of the United States of America, the depository of the Washington Treaty, of their acceptance of the protocols to the North Atlantic Treaty on the accession of the potential new members, the Secretary General invites the new countries to accede to the Treaty.
11 July 2018: At the Brussels Summit, following the historic agreement between Athens and Skopje on the solution of the name issue, Allied leaders invite the government in Skopje to begin accession talks to join NATO. Full implementation of the agreement on the solution of the name issue is a condition for a successful conclusion of the accession process.
Part of the instrument for pre-accession assistance (IPA), the instrument for pre-accession assistance for rural development (IPARD) focuses on rural areas and the agri-food sectors of countries in the process of joining the EU.
We provide here a list of 481 P450 genes and 22 pseudogenes, plus all accession numbers that have been reported as of October 18, 1995. These genes have been described in 85 eukaryote (including vertebrates, invertebrates, fungi, and plants) and 20 prokaryote species. Of 74 gene families so far described, 14 families exist in all mammals examined to date. These 14 families comprise 26 mammalian subfamilies, of which 20 and 15 have been mapped in the human genome and the mouse genome, respectively. Each subfamily usually represents a cluster of tightly linked genes widely scattered throughout the genome, but there are exceptions. Interestingly, the CYP51 family has been found in mammals, filamentous fungi and yeast, and plants-attesting to the fact that this P450 gene family is very ancient. One functional CYP51 gene and two processed pseudogenes, which are the first examples of intronless pseudogenes within the P450 superfamily, have been mapped to three different human chromosomes. This revision supersedes the four previous updates in which a nomenclature system, based on divergent evolution of the superfamily, has been described. For the gene, we recommend that the italicized root symbol "CYP' for human ("Cyp' for mouse and Drosophila), representing "cytochrome P450', be followed by an Arabic number denoting the family, a letter designating the subfamily (when two or more exist), and an Arabic numeral representing the individual gene within the subfamily. A hyphen is no longer recommended in mouse gene nomenclature. "P' ("ps' in mouse and Drosophila) after the gene number denotes a pseudogene; "X' after the gene number means its use has been discontinued. If a gene is the sole member of a family, the subfamily letter and gene number would be helpful but need not be included. The human nomenclature system should be used for all species other than mouse and Drosophila. The cDNAs, mRNAs and enzymes in all species (including mouse) should include all capital letters, and without italics or hyphens. This nomenclature system is similar to that proposed in our previous updates. 041b061a72